Document Type


Publication Date

Winter 2013


Howard Law Journal





First Page


Last Page



Part I of this Comment describes the history and structure of Egypt's antiquities laws. It also describes Egypt's relevant international obligations under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. In Part II, this Comment argues that the current state of Egypt's antiquities system is inconsistent with its international obligations. Part II considers whether Egypt's exclusion of the Nubians stems from Egyptological superiority narratives and analyzes which narratives Egypt could adopt without violating international law. Finally, Part III of this Comment proposes potential solutions that promote Nubian inclusion and Egyptian compliance with CERD, ICESCR, and UNDRIPs.


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