Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2021


Criminal Justice





First Page


Last Page



This global health crisis has proven to be an equal opportunity discloser, in that it has spotlighted the layers of inequities and racial disparities so engrained in America’s structural systems. Nowhere else is this more evident than in our criminal legal system, where justice is often austere for African Americans. The ghastly statistics of the number of people confined in jails and prisons do not fully capture the scope and extensive reach of those swept up in our legal system. It is estimated that about 4-5 million people are on community supervision, to include probation and parole, which far outnumber the 2.3 million individuals behind bars. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 28 percent of people on probation and 38 percent of people on parole are African Americans. However, African Americans make up only 13 percent of the US adult population. In 2018, African Americans were 2.6 times more likely to be on probation and 4 times more likely to be on parole, as compared to Caucasians, as reported by Michael Gelb. Michael Gelb, Racial Disparities Still Mar Probation, Parole Despite 14% Decline: Report, The Crime Rep. (Aug. 13, 2020), Unless one is directly impacted, one probably cannot comprehend the challenging road African Americans must walk to be granted parole, to navigate parole conditions, and to successfully complete supervision.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.