Document Type


Publication Date

January 2018

First Page



Soccer is unquestionably the world's most popular sport. Two hundred and eleven countries have national soccer associations, hundreds of millions of people across the globe play recreationally, and Federation Internationale de Football Association's ("FIFA") quadrennial World Cup soccer tournament is unchallenged as the highest profile4 and highest grossing sporting competition on Earth. Notwithstanding its popularity, however, soccer sits at a troubling crossroads as the sport's governing bodies grapple with the impact that the risk of brain injury is having on the game. Soccer is, of course, not alone in this regard. The risk of brain injury exists in all team contact sports, most famously in American football ("football"), which provides a cautionary tale from which soccer could stand to learn.