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INTRODUCTION: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) during conflict and periods of repression has been a problem in every region of the globe.' Historically, these crimes were rarely prosecuted, particularly when government leaders were responsible for tolerating, encouraging, or orchestrating these crimes. However, the last two decades have seen an incredible transformation in the treatment of SGBV under international law. Great strides have been made in the investigation and prosecution of sexual and gender-based crimes, particular by the ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, and the Special Court for Sierra Leone This essay examines the way in which the world's permanent International Criminal Court (ICC)-which this year celebrates its tenth anniversary-has addressed these crimes and focuses on the impact that the investigative practices of the ICC's Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) have had on the investigation and prosecution of such crimes to date.