Document Type


Publication Date

January 2017

First Page



Our understanding of human trafficking has changed significantly since 2000, when the international community adopted the first modern antitrafficking treaty-the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Trafficking Protocol).' Policy attention has expanded beyond a near-exclusive focus on sex trafficking to bring long-overdue attention to nonsexual labor trafficking. That attention has helped surface how the lack of international laws and institutions pertaining to labor migration can enable-if not encourage -the exploitation of migrant workers. Many migrant workers throughout the world labor under conditions that do not qualify as trafficking yet suffer significant rights violations for which access to protection and redress is limited. Failing to attend to these "lesser" abuses creates and sustains vulnerability to trafficking.