Climate change is impacting the Arctic earlier and more intensely than any other area of the planet. Winter temperatures have increased as much as three-to- four degrees Celsius in the past fifty years and are projected to increase four-to-seven degrees Celsius over land areas and seven-to-ten degrees over the Arctic Ocean by the end of the century. One industry that looks likely to benefit, at least in the short term, from the effects of the diminished Arctic sea ice is shipping.
De Armas, Marcel and Maria Vanko. “Mitigating Black Carbon as a Mechanism to Protect the Arctic and Prevent Abrupt Climate Change.” Sustainable Development Law and Policy, Spring 2008, 41-45, 67.