Class Year


Document Type


Publication Date



The projected increase in CO2 emissions absorbed by the oceans will cause changes in water chemistry that may affect “biodiversity, trophic interactions, and other ecosystem processes.” Elevated CO2 will lower the availability of carbonate ions, which calcifying organisms need to create their shells and skeletons. In the case of corals, it is likely to induce bleaching. High CO2 concentrations will reduce larval fish survival, as it impairs their ability to detect predators and find adequate habitat. It is clear that “[a]cidification impacts processes so fundamental [that it] could have far-reaching consequences for the oceans of the future and the millions of people that depend on its food and other resources for their livelihoods.”