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"Universities and public research institutes play a key role in the innovation ecosystem. Many countries have implemented national strategies to support the commercialization of knowledge produced by public institutions, to help take their innovations and scientific breakthroughs to market and ultimately boost economic growth. Research bodies themselves have also introduced practices to support knowledge transfer activities. The legal, policy, and institutional approaches to knowledge transfer are diverse, and there is no standardized set of assessment metrics relevant to both high- and middle-income countries. In this context, how can policymakers best help countries and institutions improve the efficiency of their knowledge transfer practices to maximize innovation-driven growth and to seek practical solutions to critical societal challenges? Comprised of research and insight by esteemed international contributors, Harnessing Public Research for Innovation in the 21st Century addresses this policymaking challenge. It assesses the current role of public research institutions in modern innovation systems and considers how to best optimize existing policies, based on inputs from leading academics, practitioners, and policymakers. It analyses what does and does not work in knowledge transfer practices, policy options, and future measurement priorities, and looks in detail at three high-income and three middle-income country examples. The book provides a useful foundation for future empirical work, the development of appropriate metrics, and for crafting new innovation policy approaches."