This article is intended as a very brief overview and history of the international treatment of “fair use” or its equivalent — that is, a general summary of the treaty obligations and national law exceptions (in statute or by common law) to the exclusive rights of authors and owners of copyrights.
Schwartz, Eric, 2014. An Overview of the International Treatment of Exceptions. PIJIP Research Paper no. 2014-02 American University Washington College of Law, Washington, D.C.