Document Type


Publication Date



Copyright limitations and exceptions have been an integral part of international copyright and related rights treaties since the original text of the Berne Convention in 1886, which protected the ability to adopt exceptions for uses for “educational” and “scientific” uses. Since that instrument, there has been great -- if uneven -- development of norms on limitations and exceptions. Currently, the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights is considering limitations and exceptions in the draft text for a treaty on broadcast organizations as well as a proposal from the African Group for a work programme on limitations and exceptions for libraries, archives, museums, education and research. To the consideration of those proposals, this document presents the text of limitations and exceptions provisions in international copyright and related rights treaties from 1886 to the present in chronological order.