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Copyright exceptions for researchers are under debate at the World Intellectual Property Organization and within domestic governments, yet empirical research in this area is rare. In this early working paper, we aim to add to this nascent body of research. We expand PIJIP’s previous review and classification of copyright exceptions in WIPO Members’ laws by tracing changes in the laws over time. We find that most countries have copyright exceptions allowing some unauthorized uses for research purposes. However, most countries’ exceptions restrict some mix of the users, uses, or types of works that are allowed. High-income countries tend to be more permissive of researcher’s unauthorized uses, than countries in other income groups, and their laws have grown slightly more permissive over the past two decades. Former British colonies with a history of fair dealing tend to be more permissive than other countries, but they are becoming less permissive on average as they amended their laws.

Appendix 1.xlsx (165 kB)
Dataset - includes the text of the laws (Tab 1A) and our coding of the laws (Tab 1B)

Appendix 2.pdf (16 kB)
List of 165 countries used in our analysis